By Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Mehdi Aminrazavi
Persia is domestic to at least one of the few civilizations on the earth that has had a continual culture of philosophical inspiration for over and a part millennia. As Islamic theology constructed within the center a long time, lots of its colleges interacted with present Persian philosophical currents and developed right into a certain philosophical 'Kalam', or dogmatic theology. one of the definitive masters of either Shi'i and Sunni theologians have been a number of Persians, leader between them Al-Ghazzali and Fakhr al-Din Al-Razi, who're prominently represented right here. very important decisions from either Shi'i and Sunni theological faculties (including Mu'tazila and Ash'ariyya) are incorporated within the quantity, lots of that have by no means earlier than been to be had in translation within the West formerly.
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Additional resources for An Anthology of Philosophy in Persia, Volume 3: Philosophical Theology in the Middle Ages and Beyond
He was the first to introduce this notion and was followed therein by others. Third Proposition: He believed that part of God’s speech is in no substratum, corresponding to His order: ‘Be’, and part in a substratum, such as commanding, prohibiting, informing or seeking information. It is as though the order of generation is different from the order of religious obligation. Fourth Proposition: With respect to free will (qadar), he held the same view as his fellow [Muʿtazilites]. However, he was a libertarian regarding this world but a determinist regarding the next world.
Promise and threat; and 4. Religious government and Islamic justice. In each case he provided the Shiʿi perspective concerning the question at hand. Systematic Shiʿi kalām with direct philosophical import did not, however, come into being until the seventh/thirteenth century with Naṣīr al-Dīn Ṭūsī (d. 672/1247). This remarkable figure, at once scientist, philosopher, ethicist and theologian, is not only known for his composition of works on Ismaili thought, which were treated in Volume Two of this Anthology, or major philosophical writings to which we shall turn in Volume Four.
Fifth Proposition: The movements of the people of the two eternal abodes will cease, and then they will be reduced to a state of permanent rest. Thereupon all the pleasures of the people of heaven will coalesce in that rest, and the sufferings of the people of hell will coalesce in that rest. This is close to the view of Jahm [ibn Ṣaffwān], who held that heaven and hell would come to an end. ’ He appears to have assumed that what follows in the case of motion does not follow in the case of rest.